Contrib is an sh sub-module that provides friendly wrappers to useful commands. Typically, the commands being wrapped are unintuitive, and the contrib version makes them intuitive.
Contrib commands should be considered generally unstable. They will grow and change as the community figures out the best interface for them.
Allows you to enter your password from the terminal at runtime, or as a string in your script.
sudo(password=None, *args, **kwargs)¶
Call sudo with
password, if specified, else ask the executing user for a password at runtime via
Many git commands use a pager for output, which can cause an unexpected behavior
when run through sh. To account for this, the contrib version sets
_tty_out=False for all git commands.
Call git with STDOUT connected to a pipe, instead of a TTY.
from sh.contrib import git repo_log = git.log()
New in version 1.13.0.
SSH password-based logins can be a pain. This contrib command performs all of the ugly setup and provides a clean interface to using SSH.
ssh(interact=None, password=None, prompt_match=None, login_success=None, *args, **kwargs)¶
- interact – A callback to handle SSH session interaction after login is successful. Required.
- password – A password string or a function that returns a password string. Optional. If not provided,
- prompt_match – The string to match in order to determine when to provide SSH with the password. Or a function that matches on the output. Optional.
- login_success – A function to determine if SSH login is successful. Optional.
interact parameter takes a callback with a signature that is slightly different to the function callbacks for
password can be simply a string that will be used to type the password. If it’s not provided, it will be read from STDIN
at runtime via
getpass.getpass(). It can also be a callable that returns the password string.
prompt_match is a string to match before the contrib command will provide the SSH process with the password. It is
optional, and if left unspecified, will default to “password: “. It can also be a callable that is called on a
SessionContent instance and returns
False for a match.
login_success is a function that takes a SessionContent object and returns a boolean for
whether or not a successful login occurred. It is optional, and if unspecified, simply evaluates to
any password submission results in a successful login (obviously not always correct). It is recommended that you specify
This class contains a record lines and characters written to the SSH processes’s STDOUT. It should be all you need from the callbacks to determine how to interact with the SSH process.
A string of the line currently being aggregated.
The previous line.
The currently written character.
To extend contrib, simply decorate a function in sh with the
decorator, and pass in the name of the command you wish to shadow to the
decorator. This method must return an instance of Command:
@contrib("ls") def my_ls(original): ls = original.bake("-l") return ls
Now you can run your custom contrib command from your scripts, and you’ll be using the command returned from your decorated function:
from sh.contrib import ls # executing: ls -l print(ls("/"))
For even more flexibility, you can design your contrib command to rewrite its options based on executed arguments. For example, say you only wish to set a command’s argument if another argument is set. You can accomplish it like this:
@contrib("ls") def my_ls(original): def process(args, kwargs): if "-a" in args: args.append("-L") return args, kwargs ls = original.bake("-l") return ls, process
Returning a process function along with the command will tell sh to use that function to preprocess the arguments at execution time using the _arg_preprocess special kwarg.